History of Prehistory
 Geochronological timescale
 Hominin Species Names
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Cite any non-quoted material obtained here as follows:

Calvert, A., K. Flammer, A. Hayes, C. Ibarra, T. Lin, D. Lowen, M. Pevey,M. Thompson, S. Vivelo, B. Wheelis, & H. Gilbert. 2017. Species naming and current status of Paranthropus robustus. Accessed from the Human Fossil Record Database at on March 27, 2017 .

 Paranthropus robustus

 Australopithecus robustus

Paranthropus robustus would be assigned to Australopithecus robustus using the alpha taxonomy

Original diagnosis:"The glenoid cavity and the relations to the tympanic bone are of exceptional interest. In the gorilla, the chimpanzee, the orang and the gibbon, the outer part of the tympanic is situated mainly below the glenoid process, and even at its outer part it forms the posterior non-articular part of the glenoid cavity. In the new fossil ape, the condition of the glenoid and tympanic is almost exactly as in man, though the parts are very much larger. The occipital condoyle is in practical the same plane as the external auditory meatus and thus farther forward than in the gorilla and the chimpanzee: which appears to inducate that the ape waked somehat more erect than the living anthropoids. From the portion of the brain case preserved, I estimate the volume of the brain to have been around 600 c.c. The face is remarkably flat and much shorter than in the gorilla. The molar teeth, differ considerably in shape from those in Plesianthropus transvaalensis, and the second premolar is about half as large again as in the Sterkfontein ape. The upper canine had been lost before fossilization, but it must have been relatively remarkably small, and the incisors, were also relatively small. The palate is relatively short and broad, and owing to the small size of the incisors and canines the anterior part is narrowed, and the teeth are arranged more as in man than in any of the living anthropoids. The anterior two-thirds of the right mandible are satisfactorily preserved. The sympheseal region has been broken off behind the canine before fossilization and slightly displaced. The incisors which are lost have been relatively very small, and the lateral ones are scarcely larger than the central. The canine crown is lost, but the impression of its outer side is preserved in the matrix. It is quite a small tooth, and remarkably human in shape. It is clearly very unlike the canine of Plesianthropus tarnsvaalensis. The premolars have rounded crowns without any high well-developed cusps as in the living anthropoids, and are thus fairly similar to those of man, but about twice as large. The second premolar differs very markedly from that of Plesianthropus transvaalensis, and we may thus confidently place the new skull in a new genus and species."

Date of Publication:  1938
Authors: Robert Broom
Holotype: TM 1517
Citation: Broom, R. 1938. The Pleistocene anthropoid apes of South Africa. Nature 142(3591): 377-379.
Sites that have fossils assigned to robustus

Database structure, interface design, and content ©2002-2017 Henry Gilbert

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Human Fossil Record by Henry Gilbert is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
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herc logo presents precise geographic locations and current best date estimates for late Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene sites with human ancestor (hominin) fossils and archaeology. Several interactive visual interfaces allow users to generate maps and tables that relate localities, fossils, tools, and evolutioanry events with geography and time. The data content is dynamic and is updated daily, as are new interface features. This site started as a course syllabus for Anthropology 3101: Human Evolution 2 at California State University, East Bay, and grew with each quarter it was used. Now has over 200 sites and hundreds of bibliographic citations. Check back often for updates. human evolution database paleoanthropology biological anthropology database physical anthropology human origins coordinates site locations location latitude longitude age Pleistocene database Quaternary database Pliocene Holocene evolutionary history site database geochronology hominin hominidae hominid hominini acheulean oldowan middle stone age mousterian paleolithic late stone age neolithic hominin database hominin DB hominin darabase hominin dayabase hominin datavase hominid darabase hominid dayabase hominid datavase hominid database hominid fossil database human origins database hominin database hominin fossil database hominid skull human ancestor database fossil human ancestors best paleoanthropology site best paleoanthropology database best hominin database best hominid database hominin site database hominid site database coordinates map hominid site map hominin site map paleoanthropology site coordinates human evolution database human origins database fossil record database