History of Prehistory
 Geochronological timescale
 Hominin Species Names
 Site List

Cite any non-quoted material obtained here as follows:

Calvert, A., K. Flammer, A. Hayes, C. Ibarra, T. Lin, D. Lowen, M. Pevey,M. Thompson, S. Vivelo, B. Wheelis, & H. Gilbert. 2024. Species naming and current status of Homo georgicus. Accessed from the Human Fossil Record Database at on July 14, 2024 .

 Homo georgicus

 Homo erectus

Homo georgicus would be assigned to Homo erectus using the alpha taxonomy

Original diagnosis:"mandible D2600, almost complete, right and left P2 and the left M1 are absent. D2600 differs from the complex H. habilis, rudolfensis, ergaster and erectus by its large dimensions, particularly: length and height, the breadth of the body of mandible (at M3 = 92.4 mm) which is superior to those of habilis and ergaster and is close to the lower values obtained for Asian H. erectus; the length of the alveolar arcade, which is superior to those of habilis and ergaster and all of the erectus (the dental alveolus masticatory portion is significant); the strong lower and posterior expansion of the symphyseal region, which differentiates it from rudolfensis and ergaster and Asian erectus and likens it to habilis; the relief of the anterior symphyseal region (sagittal keep, inferior tubercles, parasagittal canine prominences), which distinguishes 2600 from all the hominids considered, except for the small mandible D211 and rudolfensis (ER 1802).; the pronounced protrusion o fparalacteal internal torus mandibularis, which seperates it from habilis, ergaster and all of erectus and equates it with rudolfensis; the marked relief of the internal face of the ascending ramus (crista endocoronoidea, triangular buttress, crista pharyngea and deep triangular fossa for the attachment of temporalis) which differentiates it from erectus and likens it to rudolfensis; the large-sized canines, the P1 crown morphology with a disto-lingual bulge (talonide) and the oblique orientation of the principal axis, the presence of two clearly individualized roots from the neck (mesial and distal root), each of which bears a vertical line, which distinguish D2600 fromthe C and P1 of habilis and ergaster and from most of erectus (the attributes of the P1 in particular are comparable to rudolfensis teeth: ER180 and Malawi UR 501)."

Date of Publication:  2002
Authors: Gabounia L., de Lumley M.-A., Vekua A., Lordkipanidze D., de Lumley H.
Holotype: D2600
Citation: Gabounia L., de Lumley M.-A., Vekua A., Lordkipanidze D., de Lumley H. 2002. Discovery of a new hominid at Dmanisi (Transcaucasia, Georgia). Comptes Rendus Palevol 1(4): 243-253. doi:10.1016/S1631-0683(02)00032-5
Notes: Science mag published an article in Vol 300, 9 May 2003 where most examiners of the Dmansi skulls rejected the new species, citing it was too similar to H. erectus. G. Philip Rightmire (2005) also finds flaws in the strata dates, suggesting tubes had formed and collapsed in the volcanic tuffs, contaminating the older context with the younger Dmansi fossils, arguing that not only is the age younger than previously suspected, but that these specimens are also H. erectus.
Sites that have fossils assigned to erectus

Maba or Mapa ~ 0.133 Ma
Narmada ~ 0.1425 Ma
Jinniushan ~ 0.2185 Ma
Loyangalani (Kenya) ~ 0.3 Ma
Sidi Abderrahman ~ 0.39 Ma
Visogliano ~ 0.4 Ma
Ceprano ~ 0.4075 Ma
Longtandong cave ~ 0.41 Ma
Sale ~ 0.422 Ma
Lantian ~ 0.45 Ma
Zuttiyeh Cave ~ 0.453 Ma
Ain Maarouf ~ 0.455 Ma
Ternifine or Tighenif ~ 0.455 Ma
Huludong Cave ~ 0.485 Ma
Vertesszollos ~ 0.5 Ma
Kocabaş or Kokobash ~ 0.5 Ma
Olduvai Gorge Bed IV ~ 0.675 Ma
Zhoukoudian Locality 15 ~ 0.77 Ma
Yunxian County ~ 0.775 Ma
Melka Kontoure ~ 0.7905 Ma
Atapuerca Gran Dolina (TD 6 level) ~ 0.8185 Ma
Bapang Formation ~ 0.84 Ma
Olduvai Gorge Bed III ~ 0.975 Ma
Olorgesaille Member 1 ~ 0.983 Ma
Thomas Quarries ~ 0.989 Ma
Buia ~ 1 Ma
Middle Awash Daka Member ~ 1.019 Ma
Makuyuni Lower Manyara Beds ~ 1.125 Ma
Busidima North and Asbole ~ 1.15 Ma
Atapuerca Sima del Elefante ~ 1.15 Ma
Gongwangling ~ 1.1505 Ma
Perning or Mojokerto ~ 1.4 Ma
Olduvai Gorge Bed II ~ 1.46 Ma
West Turkana Nariokotome III Kaitio Member ~ 1.47 Ma
Koobi Fora Okote Member ~ 1.52 Ma
Konso Kayle Member ~ 1.565 Ma
Ileret (KBS Member) ~ 1.567 Ma
Dmanisi ~ 1.7 Ma
Koobi Fora KBS Member ~ 1.745 Ma

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herc logo presents precise geographic locations and current best date estimates for late Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene sites with human ancestor (hominin) fossils and archaeology. Several interactive visual interfaces allow users to generate maps and tables that relate localities, fossils, tools, and evolutioanry events with geography and time. The data content is dynamic and is updated daily, as are new interface features. This site started as a course syllabus for Anthropology 3101: Human Evolution 2 at California State University, East Bay, and grew with each quarter it was used. Now has over 200 sites and hundreds of bibliographic citations. Check back often for updates. human evolution database paleoanthropology biological anthropology database physical anthropology human origins coordinates site locations location latitude longitude age Pleistocene database Quaternary database Pliocene Holocene evolutionary history site database geochronology hominin hominidae hominid hominini acheulean oldowan middle stone age mousterian paleolithic late stone age neolithic hominin database hominin DB hominin darabase hominin dayabase hominin datavase hominid darabase hominid dayabase hominid datavase hominid database hominid fossil database human origins database hominin database hominin fossil database hominid skull human ancestor database fossil human ancestors best paleoanthropology site best paleoanthropology database best hominin database best hominid database hominin site database hominid site database coordinates map hominid site map hominin site map paleoanthropology site coordinates human evolution database human origins database fossil record database