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Cite any non-quoted material obtained here as follows:

Calvert, A., K. Flammer, A. Hayes, C. Ibarra, T. Lin, D. Lowen, M. Pevey,M. Thompson, S. Vivelo, B. Wheelis, & H. Gilbert. 2024. Species naming and current status of Sahelanthropus tchadensis. Accessed from the Human Fossil Record Database at on July 13, 2024 .

 Sahelanthropus tchadensis

Original diagnosis:"Sahelanthropus is distinct from all living great apes in the following respects: relatively smaller canines with apical wear, the lower showing a full occlusion above the well-developed distal tubercle, probably correlated with a non-honing C-P3 complex (P3 still unknown). Sahelanthropus is distinguished as a hominid from large living and known fossil hominoid genera in the following respects: from Pongo by a non-concave lateral facial profile, a wider intertribal pillar, superoinferiorly short subnasal height, an anteroposteriorly short face, robust supraorbital morphology, and many dental characters (described below); from Gorilla by smaller size, a narrower and less prognathic lower face, no supratoral sulcus, and smaller canines and lower-cusped cheek teeth; from Pan by an anteroposteriorly shorter face, a thicker and more continuous supraorbital torus with no supratoral sulcus, a relatively longer braincase and narrower basicranium with a flat nuchal plane and a large external occipital crest, and cheek teeth with thicker enamel; from Samburupithecus by a more anteriorly and higher-placed zygomatic process of the maxilla, smaller cheek teeth with lower cusps and without lingual cingula, and smaller upper premolars and M3; from Ouranopithecus by smaller size, a superoinferiorly, anteroposteriorly and mediolaterally shorter face, relatively thicker continuous supraorbital torus, markedly smaller but mesiodistally longer canines, apical wear and large distal tubercle in lower canines, and thinner postcanine enamel; from Sivapithecus by a supero- inferiorly and anteroposteriorly shorter face with non-concave lateral profile, a wider intertribal pillar, smaller canines with apical wear, and thinner cheek-teeth enamel; from Dryopithecus by a less prognathic lower face with a wider intertribal pillar, larger supraorbital torus, and thicker postcanine enamel. Sahelanthropus is also distinct from all known hominid genera in the following respects: from Homo by a small endocranial capacity (preliminary estimated range 320?380 cm3) associated with a long flat nuchal plane, a longer truncated triangle-shaped basioccipital, a flat frontal squama behind a robust continuous and undivided supraorbital torus, a large central upper incisor, and non-incisiform canines; from Paranthropus by a convex facial profile that is less mediolaterally wide with a much smaller malar region, no frontal trigone, the frontal squama with no hollow posterior to glabella, a smaller, longer and narrower braincase, the zygomatic process of the maxilla positioned more posterior relative to the tooth row, and markedly smaller cheek teeth; from Australopithecus by a less prognathic lower face (nasospinale?prosthion length shorter at least in presumed males) with a smaller malar (infraorbital) region and a larger, more continuous supraorbital torus, a relatively more elongate braincase, a relatively long, flat nuchal plane with a large external occipital crest, non-incisiform and mesiodistally long canines, and thinner cheek-teeth enamel; from Kenyanthropus by a narrower, more convex face, and a narrower braincase with more marked postorbital constriction and a larger nuchal crest; from Ardipithecus by upper I1 with distinctive lingual topography characterized by extensive development of the crests and cingulum; less incisiform upper canines not diamond shaped with a low distal shoulder and a mesiodistal long axis, bucco-lingually narrower lower canines with stronger distal tubercle, and P4 with two roots; from Orrorin by upper I1 with multiple tubercles on the lingual fossa, and non-chimp-like upper canines with extensive apical wear."

Date of Publication:  2002
Authors: Brunet, Michael Guy, Franck Pilbeam, David Mackaye, Hassane Taisso Likius, Andossa Ahounta, Djimdoumalbaye Beauvilain, Alain Blondel, Cecile Bocherens, Herve Boisserie, Jean-Renaud De Bonis, Louis Coppens, Yves Dejax, Jean Denys, Christiane Duringer, Philippe Eisenmann, Vera Fanone, Gongdibe Fronty, Pierre Geraads, Denis
Holotype: TM 266-01-060-1, a nearly complete cranium with the following: on the right—I2 alveolus, C (distal part), P3–P4 roots, fragmentary M1 and M2, M3; and on the left—I2 alveolus, C–P4 roots, fragmentary M1–M3 (Fig. 1 and Tables 1–5). Found by D.A. on 19 July 2001.
Citation: Brunet, M., F. Guy, et al. 2002. A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa. Nature 418: 145-151.
Sites that have fossils assigned to tchadensis

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herc logo presents precise geographic locations and current best date estimates for late Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene sites with human ancestor (hominin) fossils and archaeology. Several interactive visual interfaces allow users to generate maps and tables that relate localities, fossils, tools, and evolutioanry events with geography and time. The data content is dynamic and is updated daily, as are new interface features. This site started as a course syllabus for Anthropology 3101: Human Evolution 2 at California State University, East Bay, and grew with each quarter it was used. Now has over 200 sites and hundreds of bibliographic citations. Check back often for updates. human evolution database paleoanthropology biological anthropology database physical anthropology human origins coordinates site locations location latitude longitude age Pleistocene database Quaternary database Pliocene Holocene evolutionary history site database geochronology hominin hominidae hominid hominini acheulean oldowan middle stone age mousterian paleolithic late stone age neolithic hominin database hominin DB hominin darabase hominin dayabase hominin datavase hominid darabase hominid dayabase hominid datavase hominid database hominid fossil database human origins database hominin database hominin fossil database hominid skull human ancestor database fossil human ancestors best paleoanthropology site best paleoanthropology database best hominin database best hominid database hominin site database hominid site database coordinates map hominid site map hominin site map paleoanthropology site coordinates human evolution database human origins database fossil record database