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edit Laetoli Garusi Upper Ndolanya Beds

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Approximate age:2,480,000 years old=average of minimum (2.3 Ma) and maximum (2.66 Ma)

Date based on: K-Ar See map of sites with similar ages

Dating reference: Harrison, T., & Kweka, A. (2011) Paleontological localities on the Eyasi Plateau, including Laetoli. Paleontology and geology of Laetoli: Human evolution in context, 17-45.
Hay, R. L. (1987). Geology of the Laetoli area. In: Laetoli: A Pliocene Site in Northern Tanzania. (ed. MD Leakey & JM Harris), Clarendon Press, Oxford, 23-47.
Drake, R., & Curtis, G. H. (1987). K-Ar geochronology of the Laetoli fossil localities. In: Laetoli: A Pliocene Site in Northern Tanzania. (ed. MD Leakey & JM Harris), Clarendon Press, Oxford, 48-52.

Hominids: Australopithecus aethiopicus      


Important specimens: Juvenile aethiopicus; Oldowan archaeology (surface)

Notes: Kaiser, T., Bromage, T. G., & Schrenk, F. (1995). Hominid Corridor Research Project update: New Pliocene fossil localities at Lake Manyara and putative oldest Early Stone Age occurrences at Laetoli (Upper Ndolanya Beds), northern Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution, 28(1), 117-120.
but see Harrison 2011"It is interesting, in this regard, that the Upper Ndolanya Beds at 2.66 Ma only record the presence of Paranthropus aethiopicus, with no evidence of early Homo or archaeological traces. Lithic artifacts have been reported as surface finds from the Upper Ndolanya Beds at Loc. 18 (Kaiser et al. 1995), but no similar finds have been located in situ despite extensive investigations in these horizons by successive teams working at Laetoli, and I am inclined to discount these artifacts as being intrusive from the overlying Ngaloba Beds. "

Location: Laetoli, Tanzania
Map location/coordinates reference: Coordinates based on coordinates printed for Kakesio #6 in doi:10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2005.07.001; Fossil struthionid eggshells from Laetoli, Tanzania: Taxonomic and biostratigraphic significance; This paper is dedicated to our late friend and colleague, Christine Kiyembe, for her contributions to Tanzanian vertebrate paleontology; Terry Harrisona, Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author and Charles P. Msuyab

Key references: presents precise geographic locations and current best date estimates for late Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene sites with human ancestor (hominin) fossils and archaeology. Several interactive visual interfaces allow users to generate maps and tables that relate localities, fossils, tools, and evolutioanry events with geography and time. The data content is dynamic and is updated daily, as are new interface features. This site started as a course syllabus for Anthropology 3101: Human Evolution 2 at California State University, East Bay, and grew with each quarter it was used. Now has over 200 sites and hundreds of bibliographic citations. Check back often for updates. human evolution database paleoanthropology biological anthropology database physical anthropology human origins coordinates site locations location latitude longitude age Pleistocene database Quaternary database Pliocene Holocene evolutionary history site database geochronology hominin hominidae hominid hominini acheulean oldowan middle stone age mousterian paleolithic late stone age neolithic hominin database hominin DB hominin darabase hominin dayabase hominin datavase hominid darabase hominid dayabase hominid datavase hominid database hominid fossil database human origins database hominin database hominin fossil database hominid skull human ancestor database fossil human ancestors best paleoanthropology site best paleoanthropology database best hominin database best hominid database hominin site database hominid site database coordinates map hominid site map hominin site map paleoanthropology site coordinates human evolution database human origins database fossil record database