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Approximate age:500,000 years old=average of minimum (0.485 Ma) and maximum (0.515 Ma)

Date based on: thermoluminesence See map of sites with similar ages

Dating reference: Özkul M, Engin B, Alçiçek MC, Koralay T, Demirtasli H. 2004b. Thermoluminescence dating of Quaternary hot spring travertines and some implications on graben evolution, Denizli, western Turkey [abstract]. In 32nd Intnl. Geo. Congr., Florence, Italy. p 1474.

Hominids: late Homo erectus/heidelbergensis      


Important specimens: Frontal and partial parietals of Middle Pleistocene Homo. There is really not enough of the bone present to identify species with high confidence. Pathology on endocranium interpreted as tuberculosis.


Location: (Kokobash), Denizli province, western Anatolia, Turkey
Map location/coordinates reference: John Kappelman, M. C. A. (2008). First Homo erectus from Turkey and implications for migrations into temperate Eurasia. American journal of physical anthropology, 135(1), 110-116.

Key references: Erten, H., Sen, S., & ÷zkul, M. (2005). Pleistocene mammals from travertine deposits of the Denizli basin (SW Turkey). presents precise geographic locations and current best date estimates for late Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene sites with human ancestor (hominin) fossils and archaeology. Several interactive visual interfaces allow users to generate maps and tables that relate localities, fossils, tools, and evolutioanry events with geography and time. The data content is dynamic and is updated daily, as are new interface features. This site started as a course syllabus for Anthropology 3101: Human Evolution 2 at California State University, East Bay, and grew with each quarter it was used. Now has over 200 sites and hundreds of bibliographic citations. Check back often for updates. human evolution database paleoanthropology biological anthropology database physical anthropology human origins coordinates site locations location latitude longitude age Pleistocene database Quaternary database Pliocene Holocene evolutionary history site database geochronology hominin hominidae hominid hominini acheulean oldowan middle stone age mousterian paleolithic late stone age neolithic hominin database hominin DB hominin darabase hominin dayabase hominin datavase hominid darabase hominid dayabase hominid datavase hominid database hominid fossil database human origins database hominin database hominin fossil database hominid skull human ancestor database fossil human ancestors best paleoanthropology site best paleoanthropology database best hominin database best hominid database hominin site database hominid site database coordinates map hominid site map hominin site map paleoanthropology site coordinates human evolution database human origins database fossil record database