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Approximate age:49,000 years old=average of minimum (0.047 Ma) and maximum (0.051 Ma)

Date based on: Radiocarbon See map of sites with similar ages

Dating reference: Vogel, J.C., Waterbolk, H.T., 1963. Groningen radiocarbon dates IV. Radiocarbon 5, 163-202

Hominids: Homo neanderthalensis       


Important specimens: Shanidar skeleton; Pollen grains from burial once the key piece of evidence in debate of neanderthal mortuary practices; Evidence in dental calculus for plant food consumption

Notes: Numerous levels occur at the Shanidar locality. The lowest levels contain Mousterian archaeology and the neanderthal remains. More recent units contain upper Paleolithic and Neolithic artifacts.

Location: Kurdistan, Iraq
Map location/coordinates reference: Location taken from site photos. Coordinates are accurate.

Key references: Trinkaus, E. (1983). The Shanidar Neandertals.   Solecki, R. S. (1971). Shanidar: the first flower people: Knopf New York.

Solecki, R. S. (1975). Shanidar IV, a Neanderthal flower burial in northern Iraq. Science, 190, 880-881.

Trinkaus, E., & Zimmerman, M. R. (1982). Trauma among the Shanidar Neandertals. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 57(1), 61-76.

Sommer, J. D. (1999). The Shanidar IV Flower Burial: A re-evaluation of Neanderthal burial ritual. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 9(01), 127-129.

Henry, A. G., Brooks, A. S., & Piperno, D. R. (2010). Microfossils in calculus demonstrate consumption of plants and cooked foods in Neanderthal diets (Shanidar III, Iraq; Spy I and II, Belgium). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. presents precise geographic locations and current best date estimates for late Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene sites with human ancestor (hominin) fossils and archaeology. Several interactive visual interfaces allow users to generate maps and tables that relate localities, fossils, tools, and evolutioanry events with geography and time. The data content is dynamic and is updated daily, as are new interface features. This site started as a course syllabus for Anthropology 3101: Human Evolution 2 at California State University, East Bay, and grew with each quarter it was used. Now has over 200 sites and hundreds of bibliographic citations. Check back often for updates. human evolution database paleoanthropology biological anthropology database physical anthropology human origins coordinates site locations location latitude longitude age Pleistocene database Quaternary database Pliocene Holocene evolutionary history site database geochronology hominin hominidae hominid hominini acheulean oldowan middle stone age mousterian paleolithic late stone age neolithic hominin database hominin DB hominin darabase hominin dayabase hominin datavase hominid darabase hominid dayabase hominid datavase hominid database hominid fossil database human origins database hominin database hominin fossil database hominid skull human ancestor database fossil human ancestors best paleoanthropology site best paleoanthropology database best hominin database best hominid database hominin site database hominid site database coordinates map hominid site map hominin site map paleoanthropology site coordinates human evolution database human origins database fossil record database