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Approximate age:1,400,000 years old=average of minimum (1 Ma) and maximum (1.8 Ma)

Date based on: K-Ar (but not problems with provenience See map of sites with similar ages

Dating reference: Date often contested due to lack of certainty of location of original site. Early Pleistocene Modjokerto date from Swisher et al.(Swisher, C. C., Curtis, G. H., Jacob, T., Getty, A. G., & Suprijo, A. (1994). Age of the earliest known hominids in Java, Indonesia. Science, 263(5150), 1118. ) is actually more like an oldest possible age.

Hominids: Homo erectus      


Important specimens: Modjokerto child skull

Notes: Provenience of fossils is the subject of a colorful controversy (Huffman et al. 2006). In general, the Pucangan Formation fossils date from between about 0.9 Ma and 1.6 Ma (Larick, R., R. L. Ciochon, and Y. Zaim. 2001. Early Pleistocene 40Ar/39Ar ages for Bapang Formation hominins, Central Jawa, Indonesia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98:4866.), so the seemingly old 1.8 Ma date on Mojokerto by Swisher et al. is not outlandish, although it might best be considered a mximum age.

Location: upper Pucangan Formation, Indonesia
Map location/coordinates reference: Huffman, O. F., Zaim, Y., Kappelman, J., Ruez, D. R., de Vos, J., Rizal, Y., et al. (2006). Relocation of the 1936 Mojokerto skull discovery site near Perning, East Java. Journal of human evolution, 50(4), 431-451.;

Key references: presents precise geographic locations and current best date estimates for late Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene sites with human ancestor (hominin) fossils and archaeology. Several interactive visual interfaces allow users to generate maps and tables that relate localities, fossils, tools, and evolutioanry events with geography and time. The data content is dynamic and is updated daily, as are new interface features. This site started as a course syllabus for Anthropology 3101: Human Evolution 2 at California State University, East Bay, and grew with each quarter it was used. Now has over 200 sites and hundreds of bibliographic citations. Check back often for updates. human evolution database paleoanthropology biological anthropology database physical anthropology human origins coordinates site locations location latitude longitude age Pleistocene database Quaternary database Pliocene Holocene evolutionary history site database geochronology hominin hominidae hominid hominini acheulean oldowan middle stone age mousterian paleolithic late stone age neolithic hominin database hominin DB hominin darabase hominin dayabase hominin datavase hominid darabase hominid dayabase hominid datavase hominid database hominid fossil database human origins database hominin database hominin fossil database hominid skull human ancestor database fossil human ancestors best paleoanthropology site best paleoanthropology database best hominin database best hominid database hominin site database hominid site database coordinates map hominid site map hominin site map paleoanthropology site coordinates human evolution database human origins database fossil record database