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Approximate age:1,150,000 years old=average of minimum (1.1 Ma) and maximum (1.2 Ma)

Date based on: Ar-Ar See map of sites with similar ages

Dating reference: 40Ar/39Ar incremental-heating experiments on basaltic lavas and single-crystal total-fusion analyses of trachytic tuffs provide for the first time accurate resolution of the chronostratigraphy of the Pleistocene Peninj Group west of Lake Natron, northern Tanzania. These new data force a major revision of the chronology of the entire sequence: the base of the group is now ~1.75 Ma, the Wa Mbugu basalt within the Main Tuff is 1.19 ± 0.03 Ma (Cobb Mountain paleomagnetic event), and the top of the Peninj Group is 1.01 ± 0.03 Ma. Thus the Achulean and Olduwan artifact assemblages found in the Upper Sands and Clays of the upper Humbu Formation above the Wa Mbugu basalt are about ~1.2 to 1.1 Ma, half a million years younger than previously believed. The revised chronology also clarifies the age of the major lake expansion recorded within the upper part of the Peninj Group. This lacustrine phase is now constrained to ~1.1 to 1.0 Ma, corresponding to a previously identified episode of lake expansion in East Africa between 1.1 and 0.9 Ma (Trauth et al., 2005).

Hominids: Australopithecus boisei       

Archaeology:Oldowan  Acheulean    

Important specimens: Peninj Mandible, various Olduwan and Acheulean sites

Notes: 40Ar/39Ar Dating of the Pleistocene Peninj Group, Lake Natron, Tanzania Deino, A. L.; Dominguez-Rodrigo, M.; Luque, L. Keywords: paranthropus Paranthropus American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2006, abstract #V53C-1771; Original dating by Glynn Ll. Isaacs & Garniss H. Curtis Nature 249, 624 - 627 (1974) | doi:10.1038/249624a0.

Location: Humbu Formation, West Lake Natron, Tanazia
Map location/coordinates reference: Ignacio de la Torre, Rafael Mora, Jorge Martínez-Moreno, The early Acheulean in Peninj (Lake Natron, Tanzania), Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 27 (2008) 244?264. Coordinates are general, and are accuarate at the level of the Peninj Group as no plot of the mandible site was available in this paper.

Key references: presents precise geographic locations and current best date estimates for late Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene sites with human ancestor (hominin) fossils and archaeology. Several interactive visual interfaces allow users to generate maps and tables that relate localities, fossils, tools, and evolutioanry events with geography and time. The data content is dynamic and is updated daily, as are new interface features. This site started as a course syllabus for Anthropology 3101: Human Evolution 2 at California State University, East Bay, and grew with each quarter it was used. Now has over 200 sites and hundreds of bibliographic citations. Check back often for updates. human evolution database paleoanthropology biological anthropology database physical anthropology human origins coordinates site locations location latitude longitude age Pleistocene database Quaternary database Pliocene Holocene evolutionary history site database geochronology hominin hominidae hominid hominini acheulean oldowan middle stone age mousterian paleolithic late stone age neolithic hominin database hominin DB hominin darabase hominin dayabase hominin datavase hominid darabase hominid dayabase hominid datavase hominid database hominid fossil database human origins database hominin database hominin fossil database hominid skull human ancestor database fossil human ancestors best paleoanthropology site best paleoanthropology database best hominin database best hominid database hominin site database hominid site database coordinates map hominid site map hominin site map paleoanthropology site coordinates human evolution database human origins database fossil record database