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Approximate age:43,621 years old=average of minimum (0.041953 Ma) and maximum (0.045288 Ma)

Date based on: Radiocarbon See map of sites with similar ages

Dating reference: Lalueza-Fox, C., Sampietro, M.L., Caramelli, D., Puder, Y., Lari, M., Calafell, F., Martinez-Maza, C., Bastir, M., Fortea, J., de la Rasilla, M., et al. (2005). Neandertal evolutionary genetics; mitochondrial DNA data from the Iberian Peninsula. Mol. Biol. Evol. 22, 1077?1081.

Hominids: Homo neanderthalensis       

Archaeology:DNA  Middle Stone Age (MSA)/Mousterian    

Important specimens: Bones, teeth with DNA: populaiton of Neanderthals with DNA whows let mtDNA diversity in males that females and has been interpreted as evidence for patrilocality.

Notes: Mass spec on the teeth was in the same ballpark. Archaeology reference: Santamaría, D., Fortea, J., De La Rasilla, M., Martínez, L., Martínez, E., Cañaveras, J. C., et al. The technological and typological behaviour of a Neanderthal group from El SidrÛn cave (Asturias, Spain). Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 29(2), 119-148.

Location: Galería del Osario, El Sidrón Cave, Asturias, Spain
Map location/coordinates reference: Lalueza-Fox, C., Krause, J., Caramelli, D., Catalano, G., Milani, L., Sampietro, M. L., et al. (2006). Mitochondrial DNA of an Iberian Neandertal suggests a population affinity with other European Neandertals. Current biology: CB, 16(16), R629.

Key references: presents precise geographic locations and current best date estimates for late Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene sites with human ancestor (hominin) fossils and archaeology. Several interactive visual interfaces allow users to generate maps and tables that relate localities, fossils, tools, and evolutioanry events with geography and time. The data content is dynamic and is updated daily, as are new interface features. This site started as a course syllabus for Anthropology 3101: Human Evolution 2 at California State University, East Bay, and grew with each quarter it was used. Now has over 200 sites and hundreds of bibliographic citations. Check back often for updates. human evolution database paleoanthropology biological anthropology database physical anthropology human origins coordinates site locations location latitude longitude age Pleistocene database Quaternary database Pliocene Holocene evolutionary history site database geochronology hominin hominidae hominid hominini acheulean oldowan middle stone age mousterian paleolithic late stone age neolithic hominin database hominin DB hominin darabase hominin dayabase hominin datavase hominid darabase hominid dayabase hominid datavase hominid database hominid fossil database human origins database hominin database hominin fossil database hominid skull human ancestor database fossil human ancestors best paleoanthropology site best paleoanthropology database best hominin database best hominid database hominin site database hominid site database coordinates map hominid site map hominin site map paleoanthropology site coordinates human evolution database human origins database fossil record database