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Approximate age:40,500 years old=average of minimum (0.035 Ma) and maximum (0.046 Ma)

Date based on: See map of sites with similar ages

Dating reference: Kuzmin, Y. V., & Orlova, L. A. (1998). Radiocarbon chronology of the Siberian Paleolithic. Journal of World Prehistory, 12(1), 1-53.


Archaeology:Middle Stone Age (MSA)/Mousterian      

Important specimens: DNA extracted from phalanx is neither sapiens or Neanderthal. Pääbo calls the individual who owned the finger "the X-woman."

Notes: There are several levels from this site. The ones reported here are from the unit with the phalanx that DNA was extracted from.

Location: Altai Mountains, southern Siberia, Russia
Map location/coordinates reference: Nature 2010 paper reports incorrect coordinates. Coordinates from: Martynovich, N. (2002). Pleistocene birds from Tsagan-Agui Cave (Gobian Altai). Acta Zool. Cracov, 45, 283ñ292.

Key references: presents precise geographic locations and current best date estimates for late Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene sites with human ancestor (hominin) fossils and archaeology. Several interactive visual interfaces allow users to generate maps and tables that relate localities, fossils, tools, and evolutioanry events with geography and time. The data content is dynamic and is updated daily, as are new interface features. This site started as a course syllabus for Anthropology 3101: Human Evolution 2 at California State University, East Bay, and grew with each quarter it was used. Now has over 200 sites and hundreds of bibliographic citations. Check back often for updates. human evolution database paleoanthropology biological anthropology database physical anthropology human origins coordinates site locations location latitude longitude age Pleistocene database Quaternary database Pliocene Holocene evolutionary history site database geochronology hominin hominidae hominid hominini acheulean oldowan middle stone age mousterian paleolithic late stone age neolithic hominin database hominin DB hominin darabase hominin dayabase hominin datavase hominid darabase hominid dayabase hominid datavase hominid database hominid fossil database human origins database hominin database hominin fossil database hominid skull human ancestor database fossil human ancestors best paleoanthropology site best paleoanthropology database best hominin database best hominid database hominin site database hominid site database coordinates map hominid site map hominin site map paleoanthropology site coordinates human evolution database human origins database fossil record database