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Approximate age:60,000 years old=average of minimum (0.05 Ma) and maximum (0.07 Ma)

Date based on: TL See map of sites with similar ages

Dating reference: Rink, W. J., Schwarcz, H. P., Lee, H. K., Rees Jones, J., Rabinovich, R., & Hovers, E. (2001). Electron spin resonance (ESR) and thermal ionization mass spectrometric (TIMS) 230Th/234U dating of teeth in Middle Paleolithic layers at Amud Cave, Israel. Geoarchaeology, 16(6), 701-717.

Hominids: Homo neanderthalensis       

Archaeology:Middle Stone Age/Mousterian  Fire    

Important specimens: Amud 1 adult; Amud 7 infant;

Notes: Evidence for hunting gazelle and fallow deer

Location: Wadi Amud, Hokuk, near Sea of Galili, Israel
Map location/coordinates reference: Position not precise. Position guessed by H. Gilbert based on description of site "The cave site is situated at about 800 meters upstream along the Wadi Amud from the Zuttieh cave site and at an approximate height of 35 meters above the wadi floor on the western face of the Wadi Amud. The cave, which is excavated in the Eocene limestone cliff, is about 10 meters wide at its entrance and 12 meters deep. Its maximum height is 6 meters. In front of the cave, there is a terrace sloping down to the wadi. It ends with a steep bluft." Kobori. (1973). Bulletin 5: Paleolithic site at Douara Cave in Syria, Part 1. Tokyo: The University Museum, The University of Tokyo.

Key references: presents precise geographic locations and current best date estimates for late Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene sites with human ancestor (hominin) fossils and archaeology. Several interactive visual interfaces allow users to generate maps and tables that relate localities, fossils, tools, and evolutioanry events with geography and time. The data content is dynamic and is updated daily, as are new interface features. This site started as a course syllabus for Anthropology 3101: Human Evolution 2 at California State University, East Bay, and grew with each quarter it was used. Now has over 200 sites and hundreds of bibliographic citations. Check back often for updates. human evolution database paleoanthropology biological anthropology database physical anthropology human origins coordinates site locations location latitude longitude age Pleistocene database Quaternary database Pliocene Holocene evolutionary history site database geochronology hominin hominidae hominid hominini acheulean oldowan middle stone age mousterian paleolithic late stone age neolithic hominin database hominin DB hominin darabase hominin dayabase hominin datavase hominid darabase hominid dayabase hominid datavase hominid database hominid fossil database human origins database hominin database hominin fossil database hominid skull human ancestor database fossil human ancestors best paleoanthropology site best paleoanthropology database best hominin database best hominid database hominin site database hominid site database coordinates map hominid site map hominin site map paleoanthropology site coordinates human evolution database human origins database fossil record database