feature bone description notes
acetabular fossa os coxae a roughened depression in the center of the acetabulum the ligament of the head of the femur occupies the acetabular fossa
acetabular notch os coxae a notch in the inferior margin of the acetabulum it is spanned by the transverse acetabular ligament; the acetabular br. of the obturator a. enters the hip joint by passing through the acetabular notch
acetabulum os coxae a cup-shaped depression in the lateral surface of the os coxae bone acetabulum means vinegar cup; it is the socket for the head of the femur; it is formed by the: ilium (1/5); ischium (2/5) and pubis (2/5); the acetabular fossa lies in the floor of the acetabulum
acromial extremity clavicle the flattened lateral end of the clavicle it is marked on its inferior surface at the junction of the medial 2/3 and the lateral 1/3 by a roughened area for attachment of the coracoclavicular ligament; it articulates with the coracoid process of the scapula through a syndesmosis; it articulates with the acromion process of the scapula through a synovial joint; due to the shape of the distal clavicle; the acromion process passes inferior to the clavicle in acromioclavicular dislocations
acromion scapula a broad; flat process located at the lateral end of the scapular spine it articulates with the clavicle through a synovial joint (acromioclavicular joint)
adductor tubercle femur a process that projects superior to the medial epicondyle of the femur it is the insertion site of the ischiocondylar part of the adductor magnus m.
ala sacrum the lateral portion of the sacrum paired; it projects laterally from the body of the sacrum; it represents the fused costal and transverse processes of the first sacral vertebra
alae vomer (wings) 0
alveolar process maxilla "U"-shaped process of bone that holds the maxillary teeth contains sockets (alveoli) for the roots of the maxillary teeth
anatomical neck humerus the constricted region located inferolateral to the head it is located at the circumference of the smooth articular surface of the head
angle mandible the posteroinferior bend formed by the union of the body and the ramus
angle rib the marked angulation of the body located just lateral to the tubercle the angle of the rib is its most posterior part
anterior clinoid process sphenoid 0 0
anterior nasal spine maxilla anterior projection of bone in the midline; inferior to the anterior nasal aperture the cartilaginous part of the nasal septum sits atop this structure
anterior sacral foramina sacrum an opening in the anterior surface of the sacrum there are four pairs; each transmits the ventral primary ramus of the respective sacral spinal nerve; branches of the lateral sacral aa. enter the sacral canal through these openings
anterior superior iliac spine os coxae spine at the anterior end of the iliac crest lateral attachment of the inguinal ligament
arachnoid fovae frontal (granual fovae) 0
arachnoid foveae parietal granular foveae 0
arcuate line os coxae ridge running from anteroinferior to posterosuperior on the inner surface of the ilium inferior boundary of the iliac fossa; marks the plane of transition from abdominal cavity to pelvic cavity
articular eminence temporal 0 0
articular processes vertebra processes that project inferiorly and superiorly from the junction of the lamina and pedicle of the vertebra two pair on each vertebra (superior and inferior); the superior articular processes of one vertebra articulate with the inferior processes of the adjacent vertebra through synovial joints
articular surface sacrum the roughened area located on the lateral surface of the sacrum this surface articulates with the ilium in the sacroiliac articulation
articular tubercle temporal an inferior projection located anterior to the mandibular fossa dislocations of the temporomandibular joint result when the mandibular condyle slides anterior to this structure
atlas (C1) cervical vertebrae 1 the first cervical vertebra it is called atlas in comparison the mythological Greek Titan Atlas; who bore the weight of the world on his shoulders; it has no vertebral body; only anterior & posterior arches; it articulates with the odontoid process of the axis
axis (C2) cervical vertebrae 2 the second cervical vertebra the odontoid process (dens) projects superiorly from its body; it articulates with the anterior arch of the atlas
basal part occipital the portion of the occipital bone located anterior to the foramen magnum it articulates with the body of the sphenoid bone
base sacrum the superior surface of the sacrum the base of the sacrum articulates with the fifth lumbar vertebra through an intervertebral disk
basilar part occipital 0 0
body femur the long slender shaft of the femur the linea aspera runs the entire length of the posterior surface of the body
body fibula the long slender shaft of the fibula the interosseous membrane attaches to the entire length of the interosseous border of the fibula
body hyoid the middle portion of the "U"-shaped bone the body of the hyoid bone articulates with the greater horns posteriorly
body mandible (corpus, horizontal ramus)- the body of bone inferior to the dental arcade that comprises the bulk of the mandible. paired halves are fused in the midline at the mandibular symphysis (mental symphysis, symphysis menti)
body os coxae superolateral portion of the pubis the body of the pubis forms about 1/5 of the acetabulum
body radius the long; slender midportion of the radius it is also known as the shaft or diaphysis; the interosseous membrane attaches to the entire length of the body of the radius along its interosseous border; a fracture of the distal end of the body of the radius with a dorsal displacement of the distal fragment is quite common and is called a Colles' fracture
body rib the shaft of the rib the body is the longest part of a typical rib
body sacrum the central portion of the sacrum the body is equivalent to the bodies of the other vertebra
body sphenoid 0 0
body sternum the middle part of the sternum it articulates with the manubrium superiorly and the xiphoid process inferiorly; laterally it articulates with the costal cartilages of ribs 2-7
body talus the proximal part of the talus its superior (trochlear) part participates in the ankle joint and its inferior part articulates with the calcaneus
body tibia the long; robust shaft of the tibia the medial surface of the body of the tibia is subcutaneous throughout its length; when the shin is painfully bumped; the nerve endings are stimulated in the periosteum covering the body of the tibia
body ulna the long slender midportion of the ulna it is also called the shaft or diaphysis; the interosseous membrane attaches to the entire length of the interosseous border of the body of the ulna
bulla ethmoidalis ethmoid rounded elevation on the lateral wall of the nasal cavity located under cover of the middle nasal concha; middle ethmoidal air cells drain at its apex
calcaneal tuberosity calcaneus the posterior roughened area of the calcaneus which contacts the ground during weight-bearing it is the insertion site of the calcaneal (Achilles') tendon
capitulum humerus the rounded process that caps the distal end of the lateral condyle of the humerus it articulates with the head of the radius; capitulum means "little head"
carotid canal temporal a canal which courses through the petrous part of the temporal bone it transmits the internal carotid a. and the internal carotid plexus of nerves into the cranial cavity
cerebellar fossa occipital 0 0
cerebral fossa occipital 0 0
chiasmatic sulcus sphenoid the groove for the optic chiasm located between the jugum & the tuberculum sellae
clavicular notch sternum a notch on the superolateral border of the manubrium it articulates with the sternal end of the clavicle
clivus sphenoid 0 0
conchal crest palatine 0 0
condylar canal occipital (condylar foramen) an opening in the lateral part of the occipital bone paired; it transmits the condylar emissary vein
condylar fossae occipital 0 0
condylar process mandible the rounded process that projects posterosuperiorly from the ramus of the mandible it articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone
coracoid process scapula a beak-like process that projects anteriorly from the lateral end of the superior border of the scapula it is the attachment site for the short head of the biceps brachii m.; the coracobrachialis m.; the pectoralis minor m. and the coracoacromial and coracoclavicular ligaments
coronoid fossa humerus the depression on the anterior surface of the humerus located proximal to the trochlea near the elbow it accommodates the coronoid process of ulna when the elbow is flexed
coronoid process mandible the process that projects anterosuperiorly from the ramus of the mandible it is the attachment site of the temporalis m.
coronoid process ulna the anterior projection of bone located distal to the trochlear notch it is the insertion site of the brachialis m.
costal articular facet on the body thoracic vertebrae small smooth areas at the junction of the body and the vertebral arch most thoracic vertebrae have 2 costal facets on each side (one superior and one inferior); the superior costal facet of one vertebra and the inferior costal facet of the adjacent vertebra both articulate with the head of the same rib; also known as demifacets
costal articular facet on the transverse process thoracic vertebrae a small smooth area on the transverse process of the thoracic vertebra it articulates with the articular facet on the tubercle of the rib
costal groove rib the groove on the inner surface of the inferior border of the body of the rib it accommodates the intercostal neurovascular bundle; the costal groove provides a protective function for the intercostal neurovascular bundle;
crest of the greater tubercle humerus the ridge of bone on the anterior surface of the humerus extending inferiorly from the greater tubercle it forms the lateral lip of the intertubercular groove; it is the attachment site for the transverse humeral ligament and the pectoralis major m.
crest of the lesser tubercle humerus the ridge of bone on the anterior surface of the humerus extending inferiorly from the lesser tubercle it forms the medial lip of the intertubercular groove; it is the attachment site for the transverse humeral ligament and the teres major m.
cribriform plate ethmoid 0 0
crista galli ethmoid 0 0
cruciform eminence occipital 0 0
deltoid tuberosity humerus the roughened process on the lateral surface of the mid-shaft of the humerus it is the insertion site of the deltoid m.
dorsum sellae sphenoid 0 0
entoglenoid process temporal 0 0
ethmoid air cells ethmoid 0 0
ethmoidal air cells ethmoid pneumatized spaces (3-18 in number) within the ethmoid bone; located between the orbits three groups may be identified: anterior (drain into the hiatus semilunaris in the middle nasal meatus); middle (drain onto the apex of the bulla ethmoidalis in the middle nasal meatus); posterior (drain into the superior nasal meatus)
ethmoidal foramen (ethmoidal vessels and nerves) ethmoid 0 0
ethmoidal foramen; anterior ethmoid opening in the medial wall of the orbit transmits anterior ethmoidal vessels and nerve
ethmoidal foramen; posterior ethmoid opening in the medial wall of the orbit transmits posterior ethmoidal vessels and nerve
ethmoidal notch frontal 0 0
external acoustic meatus temporal (external acoustic meatus; EAM) the opening in the lateral surface of the temporal bone it extends medially from the surface to the tympanic membrane; it allows sound to reach the tympanic membrane; the medial 1/3 of the external acoustic meatus is bony and the lateral 2/3 is formed by cartilage
external occipital crest (median nuchal line) occipital 0 0
external occipital protuberance occipital a projection on the external surface of the squamous part of the occipital bone in the midline it is the attachment site of the ligamentum nuchae and the trapezius m.; the superior nuchal lines of the two sides meet in the midline at the external occipital protuberance; also known as: inion
facial canal temporal a canal which courses through the petrous part of the temporal bone it transmits the facial n. from the internal acoustic meatus to the stylomastoid foramen
foramen cecum frontal opening near the anterior end of the crista galli transmits an emissary vein which may result in transfer of infectious materials from the nasal cavity to the cranial cavity with resulting meningitis
foramen magnum occipital the opening in the occipital bone posterior to the basal part it transmits the spinal cord; two vertebral aa.; and two spinal accessory nerves
foramen ovale sphenoid 0 0
foramen rotundum sphenoid 0 0
foramen spinosum sphenoid 0 0
fovea capitis femoris femur a shallow pit in the head of the femur it is the attachment site of the ligamentum capitis femoris; a small artery for supply of the head is found within this ligament
frontal angle parietal 0 0
frontal crest frontal 0 0
frontal eminences frontal (frontal tubers or bosses) 0
frontal process maxilla the part of the maxilla that projects superiorly medial to the orbit it articulates with the nasal bone; the frontal bone and the lacrimal bone; it forms part of medial orbital wall & margin; it forms the anterior part of the canal for the nasolacrimal duct
frontal process zygomatic 0 0
frontal sinus frontal pneumatized space in the frontal bone usually paired; each drains through the frontonasal duct into the uppermost part of the hiatus semilunaris in the middle nasal meatus
frontal squama frontal 0 0
glabella frontal midline point between the paired superciliary arches 0
glenoid cavity scapula the articular surface located at the junction of the superior and lateral borders of the scapula it articulates with the head of the humerus; it is deepened by a fibrocartilaginous rim called the glenoid labrum
gluteal tuberosity femur a roughened area located on the posterior surface of the femur at the superior end of the lateral lip of the linea aspera it is one of the insertion sites of the gluteus maximus m.
granular foveolae parietal small pits located on the inner table of the parietal bone for the arachnoid granulations
greater horn (cornu) hyoid posteriorly directed limbs of the "U"-shaped bone each greater horn articulates with the body and lesser horns anteriorly; origin of middle pharyngeal constrictor m. and hyoglossus m.
greater palatine foramen palatine an opening in the hard palate located medial to the 3rd maxillary molar tooth it transmits the greater palatine neurovascular bundle; it is an important site for oral anesthesia
greater palatine foramen (greater palatine canal) palatine 0 0
greater trochanter femur a large process that projects superiorly from the junction of the neck and shaft of the femur the greater trochanter is the insertion site of the gluteus medius m.; gluteus minimus m.; piriformis m. and obturator internus m.
greater tubercle humerus the large projection located lateral to the head of the humerus it is the attachment site of the supraspinatus; infraspinatus & teres minor mm.
greater wing sphenoid 0 0
greater wing of the sphenoid sphenoid broad plate of bone swinging laterally from the body of the sphenoid bone bilateral; it forms the medial part of the floor of the middle cranial fossa; part of temporal fossae laterally; and the posterior part of the lateral wall of orbit; it articulates anteriorly with the zygomatic bone; superiorly with the frontal & parietal bones (at the pterion); posteriorly with the squamous & petrous portions of the temporal bone
groove for medulla oblongota occipital 0 0
head femur smooth; rounded proximal end the head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum of the pelvis
head fibula the enlarged proximal end of the fibula it articulates with the lateral condyle of tibia; the fibular collateral ligament of the knee attaches to the head of the fibula
head humerus the smooth; rounded proximal end of the ulna it articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula to form the shoulder joint
head radius the rounded proximal end of the radius it has a smooth; rounded surface for articulation with the ulna; the head of the radius is encircled by the annular ligament (4/5 of a circle) and the radial notch of the ulna (1/5 of a circle)
head rib posteromedial end of the rib it articulates with demifacets of two adjacent vertebral bodies
head talus the portion of the talus that projects anteriorly it articulates with the navicular bone
head ulna the distal end of the ulna it is small and rounded for articulation with the radius
hiatus semilunaris ethmoid groove in the ethmoid portion of the lateral nasal wall between the uncinate process below and bulla ethmoidalis above receives the frontonasal duct anterosuperiorly; opening of the maxillary sinus posteroinferiorly; and the openings of the anterior ethmoidal air cells in between
hiatus semilunaris (groove in the ethmoid portion of the lateral nasal wall between the uncinate process below and bulla ethmoidalis above) ethmoid 0 0
horizontal plate palatine 0 0
horizontal portion frontal 0 0
hypoglossal canal occipital an opening in the lateral part of the occipital bone paired; it transmits the hypoglossal nerve
hypopheseal fossa (pituitary fossa) sphenoid 0 0
iliac crest os coxae arching superior edge the ilium that forms the rim of the "fan" attachment for abdominal wall muscles
iliac fossa os coxae broad depression on the medial surface of the ilium iliac fossa is part of the false (greater) pelvis
iliac tubercle os coxae roughened area along the outer edge of the iliac crest 0
incisive foramen maxilla opening in the midline; posterior to the maxillary incisor teeth it transmits the terminal branches of the nasopalatine nn. & sphenopalatine aa.; it marks the point of union during development of the primary and secondary palate
incus incus the middle ossicle of the middle ear articulates with the head of the malleus and the head of the stapes; incus means "anvil"
inferior angle scapula the angle of the scapula formed by the union of the medial and lateral borders the inferior angle of the scapula often has a slip of origin of the latissimus dorsi attached to it
inferior horn thyroid cartilage the rounded; inferior projection of the posterior border of the thyroid lamina it is connected inferiorly to the cricoid cartilage by the cricothyroid articulation (a synovial joint)
inferior nuchal line occipital a low ridge that runs transversely on the external surface of the squamous part of the occipital bone inferior to the superior nuchal line it is an attachment site for deep neck muscles
inferior ramus os coxae inferior "limb" that passes inferolaterally from the pubic symphysis articulates with the ischial ramus to form the ischiopubic ramus; attachment site for the root of the penis (clitoris) and perineal membrane
inferior temporal line parietal an arching ridge on the external surface of the parietal bone it is an attachment site for the temporalis muscle
infraglenoid tubercle scapula a projection of bone located inferior to the glenoid cavity it is the attachment site of the tendon o of the long head of the triceps brachii m.
infraorbital canal maxilla canal in orbital process of the maxilla located in the anterior part of the orbit the direct continuation of the infraorbital groove; transmits the infraorbital neurovascular bundle from the infraorbital groove to the infraorbital foramen
infraorbital foramen maxilla opening at the anterior end of the infraorbital canal located inferior to the orbit it transmits the infraorbital neurovascular bundle
infraorbital groove maxilla groove in orbital process of the maxilla located in the posterior part of the orbit transmits the infraorbital neurovascular bundle from the infraorbital fissure to the infraorbital canal
infraspinatous fossa scapula a broad depression located inferior to the spine of the scapula it is the site of origin of the infraspinatus m.
infratemporal crests sphenoid 0 0
intercondylar eminence tibia the ridge of bone on the proximal end of the tibia that projects between the condyles the intercondylar eminence has a medial and a lateral tubercle; it is the attachment site for the cruciate ligaments; medial meniscus and lateral meniscus
intercondylar fossa femur the deep depression on the posterior surface of the femur between the condyles the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments are located here
internal acoustic meatus temporal (internal acoustic meatus) the opening on the posteromedial surface of the petrous part of the temporal bone it transmits the facial n.; the vestibulocochlear n.; and the labyrinthine a.
internal occipital crest occipital 0 0
internal occipital protuberance occipital 0 0
interosseous border fibula the sharp ridge that runs longitudinally along the medial surface of the fibula the interosseous membrane attaches to the interosseous border of the fibula
interosseous border tibia the sharp ridge that runs longitudinally along the junction of the lateral surface and the posterior surface of the tibia the interosseous membrane attaches to the interosseous border of the tibia
intertrochanteric crest femur a heavy ridge on the posterior surface of the femur that connects the greater and lesser trochanters the quadratus femoris m. inserts on the intertrochanteric crest
intertrochanteric line femur a ridge on the anterior surface of the femur that connects the greater and lesser trochanters it is the line of attachment of the fibrous joint capsule
intertubercular groove humerus the groove on the anterior surface of the humerus that is located between the crest of the greater tubercle and the crest of the lesser tubercle it is occupied by the tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii m.; the transverse humeral ligament spans the intertubercular groove and holds the biceps tendon in place; it is the attachment site for the tendon of the pectoralis major (lateral lip); teres major (medial lip); and latissimus dorsi (floor)
intervertebral foramen vertebra an opening between the pedicles of adjacent vertebrae adjacent intervertebral notches form the intervertebral foramen; an opening for passage of the spinal nerve
intervertebral notch vertebra a notch on the superior and inferior surface of the vertebral pedicle the superior intervertebral notch of one vertebra combined with the inferior intervertebral notch of the adjacent vertebra forms the intervertebral foramen
ischial ramus os coxae the limb of the ischium that passes anteriorly and superomedially toward the pubis it articulates with the inferior ramus of the pubis to form the ischiopubic ramus; attachment site for the perineal membrane
ischial spine os coxae the spine that arises just superior to the lesser sciatic notch it is the site of attachment of the sacrospinous ligament and the site of origin of the superior gemellus m.
ischial tuberosity os coxae the roughened projection that protrudes posteroinferiorly from the body of the ischium it is the site of attachment of the sacrotuberous ligament; it is the site of origin of the inferior gemellus m.; quadratus femoris m. and the hamstring mm. (semitendinosus; semimembranosus; long head of biceps femoris; ischiocondylar portion of the adductor magnus)
jugular (suprasternal) notch sternum a notch on the superior border of the manubrium it is located between the clavicular notches which articulate with the sternal ends of the clavicles
jugular fossa temporal a depression on the posterior surface of the petrous part of the temporal bone it forms the anterior margin of the jugular foramen; the occipital bone forms the posterior margin of the jugular foramen
jugular notch occipital a notch located on the anterolateral edge of the lateral part of the occipital bone it forms the posterior margin of the jugular foramen; the temporal bone forms the anterior margin of the jugular foramen
jugular process occipital 0 0
jugum sphenoid the anterior-most portion of the sphenoid bone articulates with the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone
labyrinths ethmoid 0 0
lacrimal fossae frontal 0 0
lamina thyroid cartilage a broad flat plate of cartilage forming one side of the thyroid cartilage; two laminae fuse anteriorly in the midline to form the thyroid cartilage the laryngeal prominence is the line of fusion of the two laminae; each lamina is connected superiorly to the hyoid bone by the thyrohyoid membrane
lamina vertebra a broad flat plate of bone located between the transverse process and the spinous process of the vertebra paired; it is flattened markedly in the anteroposterior direction; ligamenta flava span the interval between the laminae of adjacent vertebrae
laryngeal prominence thyroid cartilage the line of fusion of the thyroid laminae known to the lay person as the "Adam's apple"; the laryngeal prominence is a secondary sexual characteristic - in postpuberal males the angle of the laryngeal prominence is approximately 90 and in females the angle is approximately 120
lateral border scapula the portion of the scapula that runs inferomedially from the infraglenoid tubercle to the inferior angle it is an important site of muscle attachments for the teres major m.; teres minor m. and the long head of the triceps brachii m.; it has a groove for passage of the circumflex scapular a.
lateral condyle femur the rounded inferior end of the femur on the lateral side it articulates with the lateral condyle of the tibia
lateral condyle tibia the heavy prominence on the lateral side of the proximal end of the tibia the lateral condyle articulates with the lateral condyle of the femur and with the head of the fibula
lateral epicondyle femur the enlargement of bone on the lateral side of the femur just superior to the lateral condyle it is the attachment site of the fibular collateral ligament and the site of origin of the popliteus m.
lateral epicondyle humerus a knob-like projection on the lateral side of the humerus proximal to the capitulum it is the site of attachment of the common extensor tendon which is the origin of several forearm extensor muscles (extensor carpi radialis brevis m.; extensor digitorum m.; extensor digiti minimi m.; extensor carpi ulnaris m. and supinator m.); inflammation of the attachment of the common extensor tendon is called lateral epicondylitis which is also known as "tennis elbow"
lateral malleolus fibula the enlarged distal end of the fibula the lateral malleolus of the fibula forms the lateral side of the ankle joint; it articulates with the lateral surface of the talus; forcible lateral displacement of the foot can cause the fibula to fracture superior to the lateral malleolus; a condition called a Pott's fracture
lateral masses (bulla ethmoidalis) ethmoid 0 0
lateral part occipital (condylar parts) the portion of the occipital bone located lateral to the foramen magnum paired; it is pierced by the hypoglossal canal and the condylar canal
lateral pterygoid plate sphenoid thin plate of bone that projects posterolaterally from the pterygoid process it is the attachment site of the lateral & medial pterygoid muscles (lateral pterygoid m. on its lateral surface; medial pterygoid m. on its medial surface)
lateral pterygoid plate (lateral pterygoid lamina) sphenoid 0 0
lateral supracondylar ridge humerus a narrow ridge running proximally from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus it is the site of origin of the brachioradialis m. and the extensor carpi radialis longus m.
lesser horn (cornu) hyoid articulates with the greater horn at its junction with the body the inferior end of the stylohyoid ligament attaches to the lesser horn
lesser palatine foramen palatine 0 0
lesser sciatic notch os coxae the notch located between the ischial tuberosity and the ischial spine the lesser sciatic notch is converted to the lesser sciatic foramen by the sacrospinous ligament and the sacrotuberous ligament
lesser trochanter femur a large process that projects from the posteromedial surface of the femur just distal to neck it is the insertion site of the common tendon of the psoas major and iliacus mm. (iliopsoas m.)
lesser tubercle humerus the projection located lateral to the head of the humerus on the anterior surface it is the insertion site of the subscapularis m.
lesser wing sphenoid 0 0
lesser wing of the sphenoid sphenoid thin rim of bone projecting laterally from the anterior clinoid process bilateral; it forms the posterior margin of anterior cranial fossa; it articulates anteriorly with the orbital plate of the frontal bone
linea aspera femur a vertical ridge on posterior surface of the femur it is the insertion site of the medial (adductor) group of thigh muscles and the origin of the vastus intermedius m. and the short head of the biceps femoris m.
lingula mandible the projection of bone medial to the mandibular foramen it is the attachment site of the inferior end of the sphenomandibular ligament
lunate surface of the acetabulum os coxae the smooth articular surface of the acetabulum the lunate surface surrounds the acetabular fossa and the acetabular notch
malleus malleus the lateral ossicle of the middle ear the manubrium is attached by its handle to the inner surface of the tympanic membrane at the umbo; its head articulates with the incus; malleus means "hammer"
mandibular canal mandible the canal that runs through the body of the mandible it transmits the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle from the infratemporal fossa to the mandibular teeth and gingivae
mandibular foramen mandible the opening on the medial surface of the ramus The mandibular foramen is the opening into the mandible that provides the vascular and nervous support for the dentition. It transmits the inferior alveolar nerve and the alveolar vessels.
mandibular fossa temporal the depression located medial to the origin of the zygomatic process it articulates with the condylar process of the mandible
mandibular neck mandible the constriction below the articular chondyle on the chondylar process of the mandible part of the lateral pterygoid m. inserts into the pterygoid fossa of the mandibular neck
mandibular notch mandible the notch between the coronoid and condylar processes it transmits the masseteric neurovascular bundle from the infratemporal fossa to the deep surface of the masseter m.
manubrium sternum the superior part of the sternum manubrium means "handle"; as in the handle of a sword
masseteric origin zygomatic 0 0
mastoid foramen temporal 0 0
mastoid notch (digastric groove) temporal 0 0
mastoid process temporal the process located posteroinferior to the external acoustic meatus it projects inferiorly from the junction of the petrous and squamous parts of the temporal bone; it contains the mastoid air cells that open into tympanic cavity through the mastoid antrum
maxillary process zygomatic 0 0
maxillary sinus maxilla pneumatized hollow center of the body of the maxilla paired; each maxillary sinus drains through the hiatus semilunaris into the middle nasal meatus
maxillary tuberosity maxilla the roughened posterior aspect of the body of the maxilla the posterior superior alveolar nn. Enter the maxilla directly superior to this structure
medial border scapula the border of the scapula that runs from the superior angle to the inferior angle it is an important site of muscle attachments for the intermediate layer of back muscles
medial condyle femur the rounded inferior end of the femur on the medial side it articulates with the medial condyle of the tibia
medial condyle tibia the heavy prominence on the medial side of the proximal end of the tibia the medial condyle articulates with the medial condyle of the femur; it is larger than the lateral condyle of the tibia
medial epicondyle femur the enlargement of bone on the medial side of the femur just superior to the medial condyle it is the attachment site of the tibial collateral ligament of the knee joint
medial epicondyle humerus a knob-like projection on the medial side of the humerus proximal to the trochlea it is the attachment site of the common flexor tendon which is the origin for the superficial group of forearm flexor muscles (pronator teres m.; flexor carpi radialis m.; palmaris longus m.; flexor carpi ulnaris m. and flexor digitorum superficialis m.); inflammation of the attachment of the common flexor tendon is called medial epicondylitis which is also known as "tennis elbow"; the ulnar nerve is in contact with bone as it courses posterior to the medial epicondyle where it is susceptible to injury from blunt trauma or fracture
medial malleolus tibia the large bony prominence on the medial side of the ankle the medial malleolus of the tibia forms the medial side of the ankle joint; it articulates with the medial surface of the talus
medial pterygoid plate sphenoid thin plate of bone that projects posteriorly from the pterygoid process it is the attachment of the superior pharyngeal constrictor m. & the pharygobasilar fascia
medial pterygoid plate (medial pterygoid lamina) sphenoid 0 0
medial supracondylar ridge humerus a narrow ridge running proximally from the medial epicondyle of the humerus the pronator teres m. takes origin from the common flexor tendon near the most inferior part of the medial supracondylar ridge
meningeal grooves frontal 0 0
meningeal grooves parietal 0 0
mental foramen mandible The mental foramen is the large hole on the anterior body of the mandible inferior to the premolar teeth. The mental foramen transmits the mental vessel and the mental nerve. transmits the mental neurovascular bundle; covered superficially by the depressor anguli oris and depressor labii inferioris mm.
mental protuberance mandible (mental eminence) the projection on the anterior midline of the mandible the bone of the chin; mental means relating to the mind; a reference to the act of resting the chin on the hand while thinking
mental spines mandible (genial tubercles) the spines on the inner surface of the mandible posterior to the mental protuberance attachment site for the genioglossus and geniohyoid mm.
metopic suture frontal (frontal suture) 0
middle meningial grooves temporal 0 0
middle nasal concha ethmoid portion of the ethmoid bone that projects inferomedially from the lateral wall of the nasal cavity forms the superior nasal meatus above it and the middle nasal meatus (which overlies the bulla ethmoidalis and hiatus semilunaris) below it
mylohyoid line mandible the ridge running obliquely from posterosuperior to anteroinferior on the medial surface of the body of the mandible attachment site for the mylohyoid muscle; the submandibular gland is located inferior to this line and the sublingual gland is located superior to this line
nasal foramen nasal 0 0
nasopalatine groove vomer 0 0
neck femur the constricted area distal to the head of the femur most of the blood supply to the head of the femur courses along the surface of the neck; fractures of the neck of the femur may result in avascular necrosis of the head
neck fibula the constricted portion of the fibula located just inferior to the head fractures of the neck of the fibula can injure the common fibular n.
neck radius the constricted area of the radius located distal to the head the annular ligament of the radius surrounds the head of the radius; not the neck of the radius
neck rib the constricted region lateral to the head of the rib the neck of the rib is located between the head and the tubercle
neck talus the constricted part of the talus located proximal to the head 0
nuchal planum occipital 0 0
oblique line thyroid cartilage ridge which descends diagonally from superior to inferior on the lateral surface of the thyroid lamina a line of muscle attachment
obturator foramen os coxae a large foramen formed by the pubic and ischial rami obturator means to occlude or stop up; a reference to the fact that the obturator membrane closes the obturator foramen almost completely; a site of attachment for the obturator externus m. and the obturator internus m.
obturator groove os coxae groove on the inferior surface of the superior pubic ramus marks the area of passage of the obturator vessels and n. in the obturator canal
occipital angle parietal 0 0
occipital condyle occipital a low; wide projection from the inferior surface of the lateral part of the occipital bone paired; it articulates with the atlas
occipital groove (occipital sulcus) temporal 0 0
occipital planum occipital 0 0
occipital sulcus occipital (sagittal sulcus) 0
occipitomarginal sulcus occipital 0 0
olecranon ulna the proximal end of the ulna it is the insertion site of the tendon of the triceps brachii m.; when the elbow is extended; the olecranon of the ulna engages the olecranon fossa of the humerus
olecranon fossa humerus the depression on the posterior surface of the humerus located just proximal to the elbow it accommodates the olecranon process of the ulna when the elbow is extended
optic canal sphenoid canal located at the lateral end of the chiasmatic sulcus and medial to the anterior clinoid process paired; it transmits the optic nerve and the ophthalmic artery from the cranial cavity to the apex of the orbit
optic canals sphenoid 0 0
orbital plate frontal (pars orbitalis) flat portion of frontal that forms the roof of the orbit a very thin portion of the frontal bone which is like an egg shell in thickness
orbital process maxilla the part of the maxilla that forms the floor of the orbit also known as the orbital surface of the maxilla; it contains the infraorbital groove and canal; it forms the roof of the maxillary sinus
orbital process palatine a small; superior projection from the perpendicular plate of the palatine bone it forms a small part of the floor of the orbit located posteroinferiorly near the apex
orbital surface sphenoid 0 0
orbital surfaces sphenoid 0 0
palatine process maxilla shelf of bone that projects horizontally to meet at the midline in the intermaxillary suture paired; together; they form the roof of the oral cavity (hard palate) and the floor of the nasal cavity
parietal boss parietal parietal tuber; parietal eminence 0
parietal foramen parietal an opening in the parietal bone located near the sagittal suture it transmits the parietal emissary vein; a valveless vein which connects the scalp to the cranial cavity
parietal notch temporal 0 0
parietal straie parietal 0 0
patellar surface femur the smooth anterior surface at the inferior end of the femur it articulates with the posterior surface the patella
pecten os coxae ridge on superior surface of the superior pubic ramus attachment point of the pectineal ligament
pedicle vertebra short strong process that extends posteriorly from the posterolateral surface of the vertebral body paired; it connects the body with the transverse process; it is marked by superior & inferior vertebral notches;
perpendicular plate ethmoid 0 0
perpendicular plate palatine the vertical portion of the palatine bone located posteriorly on either side of the nasal cavity it articulates anteriorly with the maxilla; posteriorly it forms the medial wall of the pterygopalatine fossa and the lateral wall of the nasal cavity; its posterior edge contributes to 1/2 of the sphenopalatine foramen
perpendicular plate vomer 0 0
perpendicular plate (vertical plate) palatine 0 0
petrous pyramid temporal (petrous part) the hard part of the temporal bone located in the floor of the cranial cavity it contains the tympanic cavity (middle ear) and the bony labyrinth of the inner ear
pharyngeal tubercle occipital projection located anterior to the foramen magnum attachment site for the superior pharyngeal constrictor m.
posterior border vomer 0 0
posterior clinoid process sphenoid 0 0
posterior lacrimal crest lacrimal 0 0
posterior nasal spine palatine 0 0
posterior sacral foramina sacrum an opening in the posterior surface of the sacrum there are four pairs; each transmits the dorsal primary ramus of the respective sacral spinal nerve
posterior superior iliac spine os coxae spine at the posterior end of the iliac crest position marked by a dimpling of the skin
postglenoid process temporal 0 0
promontory sacrum a projection of the superior part of the sacrum in an anterior direction the body of the fifth lumbar vertebra sits on the sacral promontory and articulates with it through a symphysis
pterygoid canal sphenoid canal that occurs at the junction of the greater wing; the pterygoid process and the body of the sphenoid bone it transmits the nerve of the pterygoid canal from the pterygoid region to the pterygopalatine fossa
pterygoid canals sphenoid 0 0
pterygoid fossa sphenoid 0 0
pterygoid fossa of the neck mandible a shallow depression on the anterior surface of the neck of the mandible part of the lateral pterygoid m. inserts into the pterygoid fossa of the mandibular neck
pterygoid hamulus sphenoid 0 0
pterygoid process sphenoid 0 0
pterygopalatine palatine 0 0
pubic crest os coxae ridge on the superior border of the superior ramus attachment of rectus abdominis & pyramidalis mm.
pubic tubercle os coxae process at the lateral end of pubic crest attachment point of the medial end of the inguinal ligament
pyramidal process palatine 0 0
radial fossa humerus the depression on the anterior surface of the humerus located proximal to the capitulum near the elbow it accommodates the head of the radius when the elbow is flexed
radial groove humerus the groove that spirals around the posterior surface of the shaft of the humerus it is a depression for the radial n. and the deep brachial vessels; fracture of the humerus at mid-shaft can injure the radial nerve and deep brachial vessels because they are in contact with bone at this location
radial notch ulna the notch on the lateral surface of the humerus located just distal to the trochlear notch it accommodates the head of the radius; the annular ligament of the radius attaches to the anterior and posterior edges of the radial notch of the ulna to encircle the head of the radius
radial tuberosity radius a roughened area on the anteromedial surface of the radius located just distal to the neck it is the insertion site of the tendon of the biceps brachii m.
ramus mandible (ascending ramus) The vertically orieted portion of the mandible crowned by the coronoid process and the mandibular condyle and bounded inferiorly by the gonial angle. The ramus rises nearly vertically from the body; the chondyloid process and the coronoid process extend from the superior end of the ramus; the mandibular foramen is located on the medial surface of the ramus; the medial pterygoid m. attaches to the medial surface and the masseter m. attaches to the lateral surface of the ramus
sacral canal sacrum the opening in the center of the sacrum it is the continuation of the vertebral canal at sacral vertebral levels
sacral hiatus sacrum an opening in the posterior surface of the sacrum in the midline it is a normal feature that results from the failure of fusion of the laminae of the fifth sacral segment (and sometimes the fourth) during development
sagittal sulcus frontal 0 0
sagittal sulcus parietal 0 0
scaphoid fossa sphenoid an oval depression at the superior end of the lateral pterygoid plate it is the site of origin of the tensor veli palatini m.
scapular notch scapula a notch on the superior border of the scapula located medial to the attachment of the coracoid process it is bridged by the superior transverse scapular ligament; the suprascapular a. passes superior to the superior transverse scapular ligament and the suprascapular n. passes inferior to it (Army goes over the bridge; Navy goes under the bridge)
sella turcica sphenoid 0 0
sigmoid sulcus parietal 0 0
sigmoid sulcus temporal 0 0
soleal line tibia a ridge of bone that descends obliquely from lateral to medial on the posterior surface of the tibia it is the site of origin of the soleus m.
sphenoid angle parietal 0 0
sphenoid sinuses sphenoid pneumatized spaces within the body of the sphenoid bone usually paired; it drains into the sphenoethmoidal recess of the nasal cavity
sphenoidal crest sphenoid 0 0
sphenoidal rostrum sphenoid 0 0
sphenoidal sinus sphenoid 0 0
sphenopalatine foramen palatine an opening in the lateral wall of the nasal cavity formed by the perpendicular plate of the palatine bone and the body of the sphenoid bone it transmits the nasopalatine nerve and the sphenopalatine vessels
sphenopalatine notch palatine a notch at the posterosuperior margin of the perpendicular plate of the palatine bone along with the sphenoid bone it forms the sphenopalatine foramen
spine scapula a heavy ridge that runs from the medial border of the scapula to the acromion process it supports the acromion process; it divides the posterior surface of the scapula into a supraspinatous fossa and an infraspinatous fossa
spine of the sphenoid sphenoid process of bone that projects inferiorly from undersurface of greater wing of the sphenoid it is the superior attachment for the sphenomandibular ligament
spinous process vertebra a posterior midline process arising from the junction of the two laminae of the vertebra it projects inferiorly; it is an important site of muscle attachment; spinous processes of cervical vertebra 2-6 are bifid
squamous part occipital (squamous portion) the flat; thin portion of the occipital bone located posterior to the foramen magnum it articulates with the petrous part of the temporal bone anteroinferiorly and the parietal bones superolaterally at the lambdoid suture
squamous part temporal (temporal squama) the thin flat portion of the temporal bone that constitutes the side of the skull above the ear it articulates with the parietal bone and the greater wing of the sphenoid bone at the squamous suture
stapes stapes the medial ossicle of the middle ear it articulates with the long process of the incus and its base fills the fenestra vestibuli (oval window); stapes means "stirrup"
sternal angle sternum the junction of the manubrium and body of the sternum it is an anterior projection located at the level of the costal cartilage of rib 2; an important landmark for internal thoracic anatomy
sternal extremity clavicle the thickened proximal end of the clavicle it is triangular in cross-section; it articulates with the clavicular notch of the sternum through a synovial joint with two joint cavities separated by an articular disk; the sternoclavicular joint has the action of a ball and socket joint; but not the physical shape of one
styloid process radius the distal-most projection from the lateral side of the radius the radial styloid process projects lateral to the proximal row of carpal bones
styloid process temporal the spike of bone that projects inferiorly from the petrous part of the temporal bone it is the attachment site for the stylohyoid; styloglossus and stylopharyngeus mm. and the stylomandibular and stylohyoid ligaments
styloid process ulna a small projection from the distal surface of the head of the ulna it is the site of attachment of the articular disk of the distal radioulnar joint
stylomastoid foramen temporal 0 0
superciliary arch frontal (brow ridges) the ridge of bone above the orbital margin located deep to the eyebrow; blunt trauma to this region often results in cuts within the eyebrow
superior angle scapula the angle of the scapula formed at the union of the superior and medial borders it is the attachment site for the levator scapulae m.
superior border scapula the superior edge of the scapula the superior border of the scapula is marked by the scapular notch laterally
superior horn thyroid cartilage the rounded; superior projection of the posterior border of the thyroid lamina it is connected superiorly to the greater horn of the hyoid bone by the lateral thyrohyoid ligament
superior nasal concha ethmoid medial projection of the ethmoid bone from the superolateral wall of the nasal cavity forms the superior nasal meatus below it and the sphenoethmoidal recess above it
superior nuchal line occipital a low ridge that runs transversely on the external surface of the squamous part of the occipital bone it is the attachment is the for the trapezius and splenius mm.
superior orbital fissue sphenoid 0 0
superior orbital fissure sphenoid slit-like opening between the lesser & greater wings of the sphenoid bone it transmits the oculomotor nerve; the trochlear nerve; the abducens nerve; branches of ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve; the superior ophthalmic vein and lymphatics from the cranial cavity into the orbit
superior orbital margin frontal arch of bone above the orbital opening skin over this region is supplied by branches of the frontal nerve (supraorbital and supratrochlear nn.)
superior ramus os coxae superior "limb" that passes medially from the body of the pubis articulates with the superior ramus of the opposite side at the pubic symphysis
superior temporal line parietal an arching ridge on the external surface of the parietal bone it is an attachment site for the temporalis muscle and the temporal fascia
superior thyroid notch thyroid cartilage the notch at the superior end of the laryngeal prominence it is connected to the hyoid bone by the median thyrohyoid ligament
supraglenoid tubercle scapula a projection of bone located superior to the glenoid cavity it is the attachment site for the tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii m.
supramastoid crest temporal 0 0
suprameatal crest temporal 0 0
supraorbital notch frontal (supraorbital foramina) notch in the superior orbital margin occasionally present as a foramen; opening for the passage of the for supraorbital neurovascular bundle
supraspinatous fossa scapula a broad depression located superior to the spine of the scapula it is the site of origin of the supraspinatus m.
surgical neck humerus the proximal part of the shaft of the humerus it is located inferior to the greater and lesser tubercles; it is a site of frequent fracture; fractures of the surgical neck of the humerus endanger the axillary n. and the posterior circumflex humeral a.
sustentaculum tali calcaneus the shelf-like medial projection of bone located inferior to the medial malleolus it is a shelf of bone that articulates with and supports the talus; it is grooved inferiorly by the tendon of the flexor hallucis longus m.
symphysis menti mandible the midline symphysis between the two halves of the mandible the two halves of the mandible fuse during the first postnatal year
tegmen tympani temporal thin plate of bone forming the roof of the tympanic cavity located on the floor of the middle cranial fossa
temporal lines frontal 0 0
temporal process zygomatic 0 0
temporomandibular articular surface temporal 0 0
tibial tuberosity tibia the roughened protuberance on the anterior surface of the tibia located just distal to the condyles it is the attachment site of the patellar ligament; which represents the insertion of the quadriceps femoris tendon
transverse process vertebra a lateral process the extends from the junction of the pedicle and the lamina of the vertebra a site for muscle attachment and rib articulation
transverse sulci occipital 0 0
trochanteric fossa femur a depression on the medial side of the greater trochanter on its posterior surface where the greater trochanter joins the neck it is the insertion site of the obturator internus m.; superior gemellus m. and inferior gemellus m.
trochlea humerus the grooved process that caps the distal end of the medial condyle of the humerus it articulates with the trochlear notch of the ulna; the shape of the trochlea and the trochlear notch limits side-to-side movement and guarantees a hinge action; trochlea means "pulley"
trochlea talus the superior portion of the body of the talus that lies between the two malleoli it has a smooth articular surface; it participates in the formation of the ankle joint
trochlear notch ulna the crescent shaped notch on the anterior surface of the proximal end of the ulna it is located between the olecranon and the coronoid process; it articulates with the trochlea of the humerus; a ridge within the trochlear notch fits into the groove in the trochlea of the ulna which limits side-to-side movement and guarantees a hinge action
tubercle rib a projection located posteroinferior and lateral to the neck of the rib it articulates with the transverse process of a vertebra
tuberculum sellae sphenoid the anterior limit of the sella turcica the middle clinoid processes project from its lateral ends
tympanic part temporal (tympanic plate) the part of the temporal bone consisting of the external acoustic meatus and the tympanic ring the medial 1/3 of the external acoustic meatus is bony and the lateral 2/3 is formed by cartilage
tympanic ring temporal the rim of bone surrounding the medial end of the external acoustic meatus it is the attachment site of the tympanic membrane
ulnar notch radius a shallow notch located on the medial surface of the distal end of the radius it articulates with the head of the ulna
vaginal process temporal 0 0
vertebra prominens cervical vertebrae 7 the seventh cervical vertebra it has a long; non-bifid spinous process which is prominent at the nape of the neck; hence its name
vertebral arch vertebra the ring of bone formed by the paired pedicles and paired laminae of the vertebra the transverse processes and spinous process are attached to the neural arch; the neural arch protects the spinal cord
vertebral body vertebra the largest part of the vertebra it is shaped like a short cylinder; adjacent vertebral bodies articulate through a symphysis
vertebral canal vertebra the opening formed by the combination of the body and the vertebral arch it contains the spinal cord; meninges; epidural fat and the internal vertebral plexus of veins
xiphoid process sternum the inferior part of the sternum xiphoid means "sword shaped"; it is variable in size; shape & ossification; it articulates with the body of the sternum superiorly
zygomatic process frontal 0 0
zygomatic process maxilla the lateral projection of the maxilla it articulates with the zygomatic bone
zygomatic process temporal the projection of bone that arises anterior to the external acoustic meatus it articulates with the temporal process of the zygomatic bone to form the zygomatic arch
zygomaticofacial foramen zygomatic 0 0
zygomaticoorbital foramen zygomatic 0 0
zygomaticotemporal foramen zygomatic 0 0
mandibular nerve mandible mental foramen
mandibular artery mandible mental foramen
mandibular vein mandible mental foramen
oblique line mandible weak eminence that extends from the base of the mandibular ramus to the area posterior to the mental foramen
extramolar sulcus mandible The extramolar sulcus is the often-smoothed space between the last molar and the ascending ramus. It is postero-lateral to the distal end of alveolar bone, and often has an anterior-posterior orientation more than a medio lateral one. The buccinator muscle arises from this area.
buccinator muscle mandible buccinator muscle
mylohyoid muscle mandible mylohyoid muscle
attachement on the mylohyoid line.
submandibular gland mandible submandibular gland Located adjacent to submandibular fossa of the mandible.
sublingual gland mandible sublingual gland
submandibular fossa mandible Concavity on internal portion of the medial corpus inferior to the mylohyoid line. Associated with the submandibular gland.
sublingual fossa mandible Concavity on internal portion of the medial corpus inferior to the canine and 3rd premolar alveolus superior to the mylohyoid line. Associated with the submandibular gland.
genioglossus muscle mandible genioglossus
geniohyoid muscle mandible geniohyoid
mandibular torus mandible The often slightly bulbous thickening of the mandibular body immediately lingual to the premolar-molar row. This feature is variable in its expression and varies from imperceptable to pronounced.
mandibular symphysis mandible The intersection of the left and right mandibular bodies at the midline.
digastric fossa mandible rugose areas on the posterior part of the inferior mandibular body adjacents to midline and the mental spines. Attachment point for the digastric muscles.
mandibular condyle mandible Superior projection of posterior ramus with mediolaterally oriented, barlike articular surface.
condylar neck mandible Superior projection of bone supporting the mandibular condyle.
digastric muscle mandible; hyoid; temporal digastric muscle Attaches to digastric fossa, through a connective tissue loop attached to the hyoid, and attaches to the temporal posterior to the mastoid process.
pterygoid fovae mandible attachment point of lateral pterygoid muscle
lateral pterygoid muscle mandible lateral pterygoid
temporalis muscle mandible; sphenoid; frontal; parietal
mandibular notch mandible (incisura) The trough between the coronoid process and the mandibular condyle.
gonial angle mandible Also called simply the angle, and gonial angle is the posteroinferior, rounded corner of the mandible. The lateral aspect of the gonial angle is very rugose (the masseteric turberosity).
masseteric tuberositie mandible Rugose attachment point for the masseter muscle along lateral margin of gonial angle.
masseteric fossa mandible Smoothed area superior to the masseteric tuberosity.
endocoronoid ridge mandible (endocoronoid buttress) Column of bone
pterygoid tuberosities mandible Rugose attachment point of the medial pterygoid muscle on the medial base of the mandibular ramus along hte margin of the gonial angle
medial pterygoid muscle mandible; sphenoid medial pterygoid muscle attaches to pterygoid tuberosities of mandible and pterygoid plate of the sphenoid
mylohyoid groove mandible The mylohyoid groove extends inferiorly beyond the mandibular foramen. It holds the mylohyoid vessels and nerve. mylohyoid nerve mylohyoid branch of the inferior alveolar artery
head capitate