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Approximate age:127,500 years old=average of minimum (0.08 Ma) and maximum (0.175 Ma)

Date based on: biochronological correlation with OIS 5 or late OIS 6 See map of sites with similar ages

Dating reference: Urbanowski, M., Socha, P., D browski, P., Nowaczewska, W., Sadakierska-Chudy, A., Dobosz, T., et al. The first Neanderthal tooth found North of the Carpathian Mountains. Naturwissenschaften, 97(4), 411-415.

Hominids: Homo neanderthalensis       

Archaeology:Middle Stone Age, Micoquian tradition      

Important specimens: Hominin tooth (R upper M2)

Notes: Abstract An upper second permanent molar from a human was found alongside numerous tools of the Micoquian tradition and was excavated in Stajnia Cave, which is located over 100 km North of the Carpathian Mountains in southern Poland. The age of these finds has been established within a time-span of late Saalian to early Weichselian, most likely to OIS 5c or 5a, according to the palaeontological, geological, archaeological and absolute dating of the layer from which they were obtained. An examination of the morphology of the human molar indicates that this tooth exhibits many traits frequently occurring in Neanderthal upper molars. Although the occurrence of derived Neanderthal traits in the Stajnia molar cannot be firmly established because of degradation of its cusps, the presence of the above-mentioned features allows the assertion that this tooth belonged to a Neanderthal. The age of the Stajnia tooth and the archaeological context of this find also indicate that this molar is of Neanderthal origin. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00114-010-0646-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Keywords Homo neanderthalensis - Molar - Micoquian - Poland

Location: Grzeda Mirowska, North of the Carpathian Mountains, southern Poland, Poland
Map location/coordinates reference: Urbanowski, M., Socha, P., D browski, P., Nowaczewska, W., Sadakierska-Chudy, A., Dobosz, T., et al. The first Neanderthal tooth found North of the Carpathian Mountains. Naturwissenschaften, 97(4), 411-415.

Key references: Urbanowski, M., Socha, P., D browski, P., Nowaczewska, W., Sadakierska-Chudy, A., Dobosz, T., et al. The first Neanderthal tooth found North of the Carpathian Mountains. Naturwissenschaften, 97(4), 411-415.   

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