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Human Fossil Record by Henry Gilbert is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
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Approximate age:291,000 years old=average of minimum (0.2 Ma) and maximum (0.382 Ma)

Date based on: U series See map of sites with similar ages

Dating reference: Barkai, R., Gopher, A., Lauritzen, S. E., & Frumkin, A. (2003). Uranium series dates from Qesem Cave, Israel, and the end of the Lower Palaeolithic. Nature, 423(6943), 977-979.
Hershkovitz, I., Smith, P., Sarig, R., Quam, R., Rodríguez, L., García, R., et al. (2011). Middle pleistocene dental remains from Qesem Cave (Israel). American Journal of Physical Anthropology(Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010).


Hominids: Homo      

Archaeology:Acheulean  Middle Stone Age (MSA)/Mousterian  Fire  

Important specimens: Hominid molar claimed to be Homo sapiens in a press release, but there is no peer reviewed publication to corroborate this.

Notes: Qesem cave web page
Table from Hershkovitz, I., Smith, P., Sarig, R., Quam, R., Rodríguez, L., García, R., et al. (2011). Middle pleistocene dental remains from Qesem Cave (Israel). American Journal of Physical Anthropology(Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010)

Tooth Excavation square Depth (cm) Stratigraphic provenience Sediment characteristics Lithic industry Chronology
Upper I2 O-8c 170–175 Upper part of upper sequence Cemented, brown Amudian <300 kya
Lower di2 M-13d 360–365 Middle part of upper Sequence Soft, brown Amudian <300 kya
Upper M3 M-13d 360–370 Middle part of upper sequence Soft, brown Amudian <300 kya
Upper CG-9b 520–525 Upper part of lower sequence Hard, brown Yabrudian >300 kya  
Lower dm2 I-12a 560–565 Upper part of lower sequence Gray Amudian Probably >300 ka
Lower C G-22 685–690 Middle part of lower sequence Gray with bedded gravels Amudian with Spheroids >300 ka, probably 300–400 ka
Lower P3 G-22 705–710 Middle part of lower sequence Gray with bedded gravels Amudian with Spheroids >300 ka, probably 300–400 ka
Lower P4 G-22 685–690 Middle part of lower sequence Gray with bedded gravels Amudian with Spheroids >300 ka, probably 300–400 ka


Location: RoshHa'ayin, near Tel Aviv, Israel
Map location/coordinates reference: Barkai, R., Gopher, A., Lauritzen, S. E., & Frumkin, A. (2003). Uranium series dates from Qesem Cave, Israel, and the end of the Lower Palaeolithic. Nature, 423(6943), 977-979.

Key references: Hershkovitz, I., Smith, P., Sarig, R., Quam, R., Rodríguez, L., García, R., et al. (2011). Middle pleistocene dental remains from Qesem Cave (Israel). American Journal of Physical Anthropology(Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010). fulltext   

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